Global Test

Feng Shan Ho, Vienna, Austria

Manli Ho, daughter of Dr. Ho, with Commission Member Martin Gold in Washington, DC, at a Commission photo exhibit in a U.S. senate office building honoring her late father.
In 2008, the Commission posthumously honored Feng Shan Ho (1902-1997), the Chinese Consul-General in Vienna from 1938-1940, with displays around the world. Commission Member Martin Gold led the effort that placed plaques in China and Austria, and exhibits at the Capitol in Washington, DC, and in Shanghai. Gold’s initiative led the U.S. Senate to pass a resolution honoring Ho’s heroism.

Nazi Germany’s annexation of Austria in March 1938 created a reign of terror for Austria’s 185,000 Jews, many of whom tried to leave. After the Nazi pogrom of Kristallnacht in November 1938, thousands of Jews were put in concentration camps and only allowed release if a relative produced visas or tickets to other countries. At that time, most countries would not accept Jewish immigrants. Although Ho’s superior, China’s ambassador in Berlin, forbade him to issue visas on a large scale, Ho ignored the instructions and issued visas to anyone who requested exit documents, even those wishing to travel somewhere other than China. The story of Ho’s assistance to the Jews of Austria and Germany reached Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust authority, after his death in 1996. Posthumously, Yad Vashem awarded him the title of Righteous Among the Nations.

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